Psychologists from the biological approach assume that behaviour and experiences are caused by activity in the nervous system of the body. The things that people think and feel, say and do are caused, one way or another, by electrochemical events occurring within and between the neurones that make up their nervous system, particular those in the brain. Furthermore, because the genes we inherit are the result of evolution, many biopsychologists think that behavioural and psychological characteristics may have evolutionary explanations.
Controversy exists over whether children can be said to differ in a unitary abstract ability called intelligence or whether each child might better be described as possessing a set of specific cognitive abilities.
Some children are especially proficient with verbal problems and less proficient… Theories of intelligence Theories of intelligence, as is the case with most scientific theories, have evolved through a succession of models.
Four of the most influential paradigms have been psychological measurementalso known as psychometrics; cognitive psychologywhich concerns itself with the processes by which the mind functions; cognitivism and contextualism, a combined approach that studies the interaction between the environment and mental processes; and biological sciencewhich considers the neural bases of intelligence.
What follows is a discussion of developments within these four areas. Psychometric theories Psychometric theories have generally sought to understand the structure of intelligence: What form does it take, and what are its parts, if any?
Such theories have generally been based on and established by data obtained from tests of mental abilities, including analogies e. Psychometric theories are based on a model that portrays intelligence as a composite of abilities measured by mental tests.
This model can be quantified. For example, performance on a number-series test might represent a weighted composite of number, reasoning, and memory abilities for a complex series. Mathematical models allow for weakness in one area to be offset by strong ability in another area of test performance.
In this way, superior ability in reasoning can compensate for a deficiency in number ability. One of the earliest of the psychometric theories came from the British psychologist Charles E.
Spearman —who published his first major article on intelligence in He noticed what may seem obvious now—that people who did well on one mental-ability test tended to do well on others, while people who performed poorly on one of them also tended to perform poorly on others.
To identify the underlying sources of these performance differences, Spearman devised factor analysisa statistical technique that examines patterns of individual differences in test scores. He concluded that just two kinds of factors underlie all individual differences in test scores.
In other words, regardless of the task, if it requires intelligence, it requires g. The second factor is specifically related to each particular test. For example, when someone takes a test of arithmetical reasoning, his performance on the test requires a general factor that is common to all tests g and a specific factor that is related to whatever mental operations are required for mathematical reasoning as distinct from other kinds of thinking.
But what, exactly, is g? After all, giving something a name is not the same as understanding what it is. Although the debate between Spearman and Thurstone has remained unresolved, other psychologists—such as Canadian Philip E.
Vernon and American Raymond B. Cattell —have suggested that both were right in some respects. Vernon and Cattell viewed intellectual abilities as hierarchical, with g, or general ability, located at the top of the hierarchy.Evaluation of the biological approach.
Strengths - Scanning research techniques are useful for investigating the functions of the brain: an organ with obvious involvement in our behaviour that would otherwise be unobservable.
- The approach presents the strong nature viewpoint of the nature-nurture debate. Video: Biological Approach in Psychology: Definition & Summary In this lesson, you'll learn what the biological approach to psychology is and how it is used to better understand the human experience. You must be a current Student, Staff or Faculty member of OSU in order to purchase all Apple products.
Please bring in your OSU ID with you when picking up. Biological psychology: Biological psychology, the study of the physiological bases of behaviour.
Biological psychology is concerned primarily with the relationship between psychological processes and the underlying physiological events—or, in other words, the mind-body phenomenon. Its focus is the function of the brain.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental iridis-photo-restoration.comgh many behaviors could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context.
There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed. Abstract. This chapter critiques positive psychology (PP) and PP interventions (PPIs) at three levels.
First, it identifies the fundamental problems of elitism and scientism, which permeate and negatively impact PP research and applications.